Resolvin E1 (RvE1; 5S, 12R, 18R-trihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid) is an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). It has been recently shown that RvE1 is involved in the resolution of inflammation. However, it is not known whether RvE1 is involved in the resolution of asthmatic inflammation. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of RvE1 in asthma, a murine model of asthma was studied. After RvE1 was administered to mice intraperitoneally, there were decreases in: airway eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment, specific Th2 cytokine, IL-13, ovalbumin-specific IgE, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine. Moreover, RvE1-treated mice had significantly lower mucus scores compared to vehicle-treated mice based on the number of goblet cells stained with periodic acid-schiff (PAS). These findings provide evidence that RvE1 is a pivotal counterregulatory signal in allergic inflammation and offer novel multi-pronged therapeutic approaches for human asthma.