Recent reports suggest that Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, E3 ubiquitin ligases, play a pivotal role in muscle atrophy. In the present study, effect of Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 (GHRP-2), a GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) agonist, on the expressions of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in vivo rat muscles was examined. Dexamethasone administration increased Atrogin-1 mRNA level in rat soleus muscle. The increased mRNA level of Atrogin-1 was significantly attenuated by GHRP-2. In addition, GHRP-2 decreased MuRF1 mRNA level irrespective of the presence of dexamethasone. Although IGF-I is a well-known protective factor for muscle atrophy, GHRP-2 did not influence plasma IGF-I levels and IGF-I mRNA levels in muscles. To clarify a direct effect of GHRP-2, differentiated C2C12 myocytes were used. Ten micrometer dexamethasone increased both Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA levels in C2C12 cells. GHRP-2 attenuated dexamethasone-induced expression of them dose-dependently and decreased the basal level of MuRF1 mRNA. The suppressive effect on the expressions of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 by GHRP-2 was blocked by [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, a GHS-R1a blocker, suggesting the effect of GHRP-2 was mediated through GHS-R1a. Taken together, GHRP-2 directly attenuates Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA levels through ghrelin receptors in myocytes.