Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that mediate resistance against viruses and tumors. They express multiple activating receptors that couple to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing signaling chains for downstream cell activation. Ligation of activating NK-cell receptors induces NK-cell cytotoxicity and cytokine release. How these distinct events are selectively controlled is not well defined. Here we report the identification of a specific signaling pathway that operates downstream of the ITAM-coupled NK-cell receptors NK1.1, Ly49D, Ly49H, and NKG2D. Using primary NK cells from Bcl10(-/-), Malt1(-/-), Carma1(-/-), and Card9(-/-) mice, we demonstrate a key role for Bcl10 signalosomes in the activation of canonical NF-kappaB signaling as well as JNK and p38 MAPK upon NK-cell triggering. Bcl10 directly cooperates with Malt1 and depends on Carma1 (Card11) but not on Card9 for NK-cell activation. These Bcl10-dependent cascades selectively control cytokine and chemokine production but do not affect NK-cell differentiation or killing. Thus, we identify a molecular basis for the segregation of NK-cell receptor-induced signals for cytokine release and target cell killing and extend the previously recognized roles for CARD-protein/Bcl10/Malt1 complexes in ITAM receptor signaling in innate and adaptive immune cells.