Morphine, a powerful analgesic, and norepinephrine, the principal neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerves, exert major inhibitory effects on both peripheral and brain neurons by activating distinct cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors-the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and alpha2A-adrenergic receptor (alpha2A-AR), respectively. These receptors, either singly or as a heterodimer, activate common signal transduction pathways mediated through the inhibitory G proteins (G(i) and G(o)). Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy, we show that in the heterodimer, the MOR and alpha2A-AR communicate with each other through a cross-conformational switch that permits direct inhibition of one receptor by the other with subsecond kinetics. We discovered that morphine binding to the MOR triggers a conformational change in the norepinephrine-occupied alpha2A-AR that inhibits its signaling to G(i) and the downstream MAP kinase cascade. These data highlight a new mechanism in signal transduction whereby a G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer mediates conformational changes that propagate from one receptor to the other and cause the second receptor's rapid inactivation.