CYLD is a protein with tumor suppressor properties which was originally discovered associated with cylindromatosis, an inherited cancer exclusively affecting the folicullo-sebaceous-apocrine unit of the epidermis. CYLD exhibits deubiquitinating activity and acts as a negative regulator of NF-kappaB and JNK signaling through its interaction with NEMO and TRAF2. Recent data suggest that this is unlikely to be its unique function in vivo. CYLD has also been shown to control other seemingly disparate cellular processes, such as proximal T cell receptor signaling, TrkA endocytosis and mitosis. In each case, this enzyme appears to act by regulating a specific type of polyubiquitination, K63 polyubiquitination, that does not result in recognition and degradation of proteins by the proteasome but instead controls their activity through diverse mechanisms.