Regulation of Calcium (Ca) cycling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) underlies the control of cardiac contraction during excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Moreover, alterations in E-C coupling occurring in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are characterized by abnormal Ca-cycling through the SR network. A large body of evidence points to the central role of: a) SERCA and its regulator phospholamban (PLN) in the modulation of cardiac relaxation; b) calsequestrin in the regulation of SR Ca-load; and c) the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca-channel in the control of SR Ca-release. The levels or activity of these key Ca-handling proteins are altered in cardiomyopathies, and these changes have been linked to the deteriorated cardiac function and remodeling. Furthermore, genetic variants in these SR Ca-cycling proteins have been identified, which may predispose to heart failure or fatal arrhythmias. This chapter concentrates on the pivotal role of SR Ca-cycling proteins in health and disease with specific emphasis on their recently reported genetic modifiers.