The Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides information on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2007, based on the available evidence, and discusses these developments. Certain modifications to the Immunization Schedule for 2008 are recommended. A second varicella vaccine booster dose, administered together with the booster dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine when children start school (3-4 years), is recommended to avoid vaccine failures against the varicella-zoster virus. Based on current scientific evidence, the importance of universal heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination, as carried out in most similar European countries and in the autonomous community of Madrid in Spain, is stressed. Human papilloma virus vaccine is included in the Immunization Schedule for girls from 11 years old, and initially, at least up to the age of 16 years. Vaccination against rotavirus in children starting at 6 weeks and completing the series before 6 months is recommended. Other recommendations included in this year's Immunization Schedule are vaccination against influenza and hepatitis A virus in risk groups and at the pediatrician's discretion, as a first step toward the future recommendation of universal immunization.