Aims/hypothesis: The risk of dying of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before the age of 40 years is increased nearly 20-fold in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a population-based study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: CVD risk factors were examined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria in 2005. Of 26 paediatric clinics in Norway, 25 participated with 1,658 patients, 85% of those eligible. Mean age was 13.1 years and mean diabetes duration 5.7 years.
Results: HbA(1c) was above the target level in 71.4%. A positive family history of early CVD and/or diabetes was found in 33% of participants. LDL-cholesterol was >2.6 mmol/l in 34.5% and HDL-cholesterol was <1.1 mmol/l in 6.9% of participants. Blood pressure was above the 90th percentile by age, sex and height in 7% and above the 95th percentile in 4% of participants. Four per cent of participants were obese, 3% of those >or=12 years of age reported smoking and 1% of all participants had persistent microalbuminuria. Only 0.2% of the patients were receiving statin and 0.3% anti-hypertensive treatments. Dietary habits and physical activity level were evaluated in some patients. Almost all had higher intake of dietary fat and lower intake of fibre than recommended. A large part was less active and watched more TV than recommended.
Conclusions/interpretation: Of the participants, 86% had at least one, 45% at least two and 15% at least three CVD risk factors. Few patients were treated with statins and anti-hypertensive drugs.