DNA prime protein boost strategies protect cattle from bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 challenge

J Gen Virol. 2008 Feb;89(Pt 2):453-466. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.83251-0.


At present, infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 occur nearly as frequently as those with BVDV type 1, so development of vaccines that protect cattle from both type 1 and type 2 BVDV has become critical. In this study, we compared various DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategies to protect cattle from challenge with BVDV-2 using the major protective antigen of BVDV, glycoprotein E2. Calves were immunized with a plasmid encoding either type 1 E2 (E2.1) or type 2 E2 (E2.2) or with both plasmids (E2.1+E2.2). This was followed by a heterologous boost with E2.1, E2.2 or E2.1 and E2.2 protein formulated with Emulsigen and a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Subsequently, the calves were challenged with BVDV-2 strain 1373. All vaccinated calves developed both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, including virus-neutralizing antibodies and IFN-gamma-secreting cells in the peripheral blood. Depletion studies showed that CD4+ T cells were responsible for IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, the calves vaccinated with either the E2.2 or the E2.1+E2.2 vaccines were very well protected from challenge with BVDV-2, having little leukopenia and showing no weight loss or temperature response. In addition, the animals vaccinated with the E2.1 vaccine were partially protected, so there was a certain level of cross-protection. These data demonstrate that a vaccination strategy consisting of priming with E2.2 or E2.1+E2.2 DNA and boosting with E2.2 or E2.1+E2.2 protein fully protects cattle from BVDV-2 challenge.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease / prevention & control*
  • Cattle
  • DNA Primers / administration & dosage*
  • DNA, Viral / administration & dosage
  • DNA, Viral / immunology
  • Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral / chemistry
  • Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral / genetics*
  • Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral / genetics*
  • Plasmids / administration & dosage*
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Vaccination / veterinary
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / immunology
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Viral
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Vaccines
  • gp53, bovine viral diarrhea virus