Based on a review of literature and consensus, the Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) makes the following recommendations: unattended portable monitoring (PM) for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should be performed only in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Clinical sleep evaluations using PM must be supervised by a practitioner with board certification in sleep medicine or an individual who fulfills the eligibility criteria for the sleep medicine certification examination. PM may be used as an alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for the diagnosis of OSA in patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe OSA. PM is not appropriate for the diagnosis of OSA in patients with significant comorbid medical conditions that may degrade the accuracy of PM. PM is not appropriate for the diagnostic evaluation of patients suspected of having comorbid sleep disorders. PM is not appropriate for general screening of asymptomatic populations. PM may be indicated for the diagnosis of OSA in patients for whom in-laboratory PSG is not possible by virtue of immobility, safety, or critical illness. PM may also be indicated to monitor the response to non-CPAP treatments for sleep apnea. At a minimum, PM must record airflow, respiratory effort, and blood oxygenation. The airflow, effort, and oximetric biosensors conventionally used for in-laboratory PSG should be used in PM. The Task Force recommends that PM testing be performed under the auspices of an AASM-accredited comprehensive sleep medicine program with written policies and procedures. An experienced sleep technologist/technician must apply the sensors or directly educate patients in sensor application. The PM device must allow for display of raw data with the capability of manual scoring or editing of automated scoring by a qualified sleep technician/technologist. A board certified sleep specialist, or an individual who fulfills the eligibility criteria for the sleep medicine certification examination, must review the raw data from PM using scoring criteria consistent with current published AASM standards. Under the conditions specified above, PM may be used for unattended studies in the patient's home. Afollow-up visit to review test results should be performed for all patients undergoing PM. Negative or technically inadequate PM tests in patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe OSA should prompt in-laboratory polysomnography.