History of the FIGO cancer staging system

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008 May;101(2):205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.11.004. Epub 2008 Jan 15.


The main objectives of any good staging system - essential to an evidence-based approach to cancer - are: to aid the clinician in planning treatment; to provide indication of prognosis; to assist the physician in evaluating the results of treatment; to facilitate the exchange of information between treatment centers, thus disseminating knowledge; and to contribute to continuing investigations into human malignancies. A good staging system must have 3 basic characteristics: it must be valid, reliable, and practical. The first staging system for gynecological cancers appeared around the turn of the 20th century and applied to the carcinoma of the cervix uteri-the most common cancer affecting women in high income countries at that time. The classification and staging of the other gynecological malignancies was not put forward until the 1950s. Over the years, these staging classifications - with the exception of cervical cancer and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia - have shifted from a clinical to a surgical-pathological basis. This paper reviews the history of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) cancer staging system, how it was developed, and why.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Genital Neoplasms, Female / history*
  • Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Staging / history*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / history*
  • Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology