Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the developed world and their effect on the eye and vision

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008 Jan;28(1):1-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2007.00531.x.


Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in developing countries, but also occur in developed countries. We review micronutrient deficiencies for the major vitamins A, cobalamin (B(12)), biotin (vitamin H), vitamins C and E, as well as the minerals iron, and zinc, in the developed world, in terms of their relationship to systemic health and any resulting ocular disease and/or visual dysfunction. A knowledge of these effects is important as individuals with consequent poor ocular health and reduced visual function may present for ophthalmic care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Avitaminosis / physiopathology*
  • Developed Countries
  • Eye / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Minerals / administration & dosage*
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Vision, Ocular / physiology*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*


  • Minerals
  • Vitamins