Eukaryotic protein kinases, containing a conserved catalytic domain, represent one of the largest superfamilies of the eukaryotic proteins and play distinct roles in cell signaling and diseases. Near completion of rat genome sequencing project enables the evaluation of a near complete set of rat protein kinases. Publicly accessible genetic sequence databases were searched for rat protein kinases, and 515 eukaryotic protein kinases, 40 atypical protein kinases and 45 kinase pseudogenes were identified. The rat has 509 putative protein kinases orthologous to human kinases. Unlike microtubule affinity-regulating kinases, the rat has a few more kinases, in addition to the orthologous pairs of mouse kinases. The comparison of 11 different eukaryotic species revealed the evolutionary conservation of this diverse family of proteins. The evolutionary rate studies of human disease and non-disease associated kinases suggested that relatively uniform selective pressures have been applied to these kinase classes. This bioinformatic study of the rat protein kinases provides a suitable framework for further characterization of the functional and structural properties of these protein kinases.