Figaro: a novel statistical method for vector sequence removal

Bioinformatics. 2008 Feb 15;24(4):462-7. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm632. Epub 2008 Jan 17.


Motivation: Sequences produced by automated Sanger sequencing machines frequently contain fragments of the cloning vector on their ends. Software tools currently available for identifying and removing the vector sequence require knowledge of the vector sequence, specific splice sites and any adapter sequences used in the experiment-information often omitted from public databases. Furthermore, the clipping coordinates themselves are missing or incorrectly reported. As an example, within the approximately 1.24 billion shotgun sequences deposited in the NCBI Trace Archive, as many as approximately 735 million (approximately 60%) lack vector clipping information. Correct clipping information is essential to scientists attempting to validate, improve and even finish the increasingly large number of genomes released at a 'draft' quality level.

Results: We present here Figaro, a novel software tool for identifying and removing the vector from raw sequence data without prior knowledge of the vector sequence. The vector sequence is automatically inferred by analyzing the frequency of occurrence of short oligo-nucleotides using Poisson statistics. We show that Figaro achieves 99.98% sensitivity when tested on approximately 1.5 million shotgun reads from Drosophila pseudoobscura. We further explore the impact of accurate vector trimming on the quality of whole-genome assemblies by re-assembling two bacterial genomes from shotgun sequences deposited in the Trace Archive. Designed as a module in large computational pipelines, Figaro is fast, lightweight and flexible.

Availability: Figaro is released under an open-source license through the AMOS package (

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Drosophila / genetics
  • Genetic Vectors / analysis*
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics*
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods*
  • Software*