CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) is found on a variety of cells in the immune system and has been shown to play an important role in the host response to pathogens. These studies used a murine model of virus-induced exacerbation of allergic airway disease to examine the role of CCR1 on T cells associated with immune responses taking place in the lung. Lungs of virally exacerbated allergic animals contained elevated levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-13 and increased levels of CCR1 ligands CCL3 and CCL5. CCR1 expression on T cells was increased in virally exacerbated allergic animals over the level observed in mice sensitized to allergen or exposed to viral infection alone. Using mice deficient for CCR1, we observed decreased airway hyperreactivity and Th2 cytokine production from CD4(+) T cells when this receptor was absent. Transfer studies demonstrated that neither CD4(+) nor CD8(+) T cells from CCR1(-/-) mice migrated to the lymph node as efficiently as wild-type T cells. Intracellular cytokine staining in wild-type mice revealed that CCR1(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are associated with interleukin-13 production. Thus, these studies identify CCR1 as a potential target for alleviating T-cell accumulation during exacerbation of asthmatic disease.