The effects of the CYP1A1*2A genotype on susceptibility to leukemia have received particular attention in recent years because this enzyme plays a central role in the activation of carcinogens. Several polymorphisms at the CYP1A1 locus have been identified and their genotypes appear to exhibit population frequencies that depend on ethnicity. We evaluated the role of the CYP1A1*2A genotype in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by genotyping 210 patients and 228 healthy controls from the Mexican population. The frequency of the CC genotype was 8% (18/228) in the control group and 42% (88/210) in ALL patients; the frequency of the CT genotype was 39% (89/228) and 29.5% (62/210), respectively; and that of the TT genotype was 53% (121/228) and 28.5% (60/210), respectively. The odds ratio was 8.4 (95% CI, 4.7-15.5; P < 0.001). These data indicate that the CYP1A1*2A genotype contributes significantly to susceptibility to adult ALL in a sample of the Mexican population.