Expanding the phenotype of alopecia-contractures-dwarfism mental retardation syndrome (ACD syndrome): description of an additional case and review of the literature

Eur J Pediatr. 2008 Sep;167(9):1057-62. doi: 10.1007/s00431-007-0641-6. Epub 2008 Jan 17.


Alopecia-contractures-dwarfism mental retardation syndrome (ACD syndrome; OMIM 203550) is a very rare genetic disorder with distinct features. To our knowledge, there have been four cases documented to date. In addition, another three patients, previously described as having IFAP syndrome (OMIM %308205), may also have ACD syndrome. We report on one patient with short stature, total alopecia, ichthyosis, photophobia, seizures, ectrodactyly, vertebral anomalies, scoliosis, multiple contractures, mental retardation, and striking facial and other features (e.g. microdolichocephaly, missing eyebrows and eyelashes, long nose, large ears) consistent with ACD syndrome. Results of laboratory testing in the literature case reports were normal, although in none of them, array-CGH (microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization) analysis was performed. In conclusion, the combination of specific features, including total alopecia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and skeletal anomalies are suggestive of ACD syndrome. We propose that children with this syndrome undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investigation, psychological testing, management of dermatologic and orthopedic problems, and genetic counseling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alopecia / complications*
  • Alopecia / genetics
  • Alopecia / physiopathology
  • Dwarfism / complications*
  • Dwarfism / genetics
  • Dwarfism / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / complications*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Male
  • Microcephaly / complications*
  • Microcephaly / genetics
  • Microcephaly / physiopathology
  • Phenotype*
  • Syndrome