Activation of Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels by synthetic compounds

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Feb;29(2):99-107. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2007.11.010. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

Abstract

Voltage-gated Kv7 (or KCNQ) channels play a pivotal role in controlling membrane excitability. Like typical voltage-gated ion channels, Kv7 channels undergo a closed-to-open transition by sensing changes in transmembrane potential, and thereby mediate inhibitory K(+) currents to reduce membrane excitability. Reduction of Kv7 channel activity as a result of genetic mutation is responsible for various human diseases due to membrane hyperexcitability, including epilepsy, arrhythmia and deafness. As a result, the discovery of small compounds that activate voltage-gated ion channels is an important strategy for clinical intervention in such disorders. Because ligand binding can induce a conformational change leading to subthreshold channel opening, there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular basis of these 'gain-of-function' molecules. Although small-molecule activators of cation channels are rare, several novel compounds that activate Kv7 voltage-gated channels have been identified. Recent advances in defining the activator-binding sites and in understanding their mechanism of action have begun to provide insight into the activation of voltage-gated channels by synthetic compounds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Humans
  • KCNQ Potassium Channels / drug effects*
  • KCNQ Potassium Channels / metabolism*
  • Ligands
  • Membrane Potentials / drug effects
  • Membrane Potentials / physiology
  • Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology

Substances

  • KCNQ Potassium Channels
  • Ligands