Patients with cancer frequently exhibit acid-base and electrolyte disturbances that complicate their management and prolong their hospitalization. The mechanisms encountered for these abnormalities are multifactorial in origin. Both the underlying disease and the therapeutic interventions can contribute to the development of these disturbances. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis is of paramount importance for their prevention and treatment in cancer patients. This article briefly reviews the causes and the pathophysiology of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities observed in cancer patients.