Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 1;228(1):114-34. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.12.008. Epub 2007 Dec 14.


Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ("environmentally") exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 microg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 microg per person (<0.1 microg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis
  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / toxicity*
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Biotransformation
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure / analysis*
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics
  • Phenols / toxicity*


  • Air Pollutants, Occupational
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A