The geographic distribution of the ACE II genotype: a novel finding

Genet Res. 2007 Aug;89(4):259-67. doi: 10.1017/S0016672307009019.


Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism insertion (I) or deletion (D) has been widely studied in different populations, and linked to various functional effects and associated with common diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the ACE I/D frequency in different populations and geographic location; ACE I/D allele frequency in the Lebanese population and ACE II genotype contribution to the geographic trend were also identified. Five hundred and seventy healthy volunteers were recruited from the Lebanese population. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal cells, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction; products were then identified by gel electrophoresis. The frequencies of the different ACE I/D genotypes were determined and tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). To assess the relationship between ACE I/D frequency and geographic location, and to identify how the Lebanese population contributes to the geographic trend in ACE I/D frequencies, Eurasian population samples and Asians were incorporated in the analyses from the literature. The frequency of the I allele in the Lebanese population was 27% and the corresponding II genotype was at a frequency of 7.37% (in HWE; P=0.979). The ACE I allele and genotype frequencies show an association with longitude, with frequencies increasing eastwards and westwards from the Middle East.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Demography*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Genotype
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • INDEL Mutation / genetics*
  • Lebanon
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*


  • DNA Primers
  • ACE protein, human
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A