microRNAs in the miR-106b family are overexpressed in multiple tumor types and are correlated with the expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle. Consistent with these observations, miR-106b family gain of function promotes cell cycle progression, whereas loss of function reverses this phenotype. Microarray profiling uncovers multiple targets of the family, including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/CDKN1A. We show that p21 is a direct target of miR-106b and that its silencing plays a key role in miR-106b-induced cell cycle phenotypes. We also show that miR-106b overrides a doxorubicin-induced DNA damage checkpoint. Thus, miR-106b family members contribute to tumor cell proliferation in part by regulating cell cycle progression and by modulating checkpoint functions.