Fifty-eight women, at least 35 years old, without breast cancer, were approached to examine the role of anxiety in mammography compliance. Forty-seven women for pre- and 43 for pre- and post-mammography completed the analysis. Mean age was 50; 64% were Hispanic, and 83% had no health insurance. Anxiety scores decreased after mammography. Residual anxiety was associated with having more than four films taken or with "non-negative" results. Eighty-five percent intended to return as recommended. Even though 26% of the group reported post-mammography anxiety, most planned to return. Future studies should explore staff influence on compliance across cultures.