Combined psychological and nicotine gum treatment for smoking: a critical review

J Subst Abuse. 1991;3(3):337-50. doi: 10.1016/s0899-3289(10)80017-3.


The results from seven studies suggest that both adding nicotine gum to a psychological therapy and adding a psychological therapy to nicotine gum increase long-term quit rates among smokers. Behavioral mechanisms to account for the increased quit rates are not clear. Suggestions for better reporting of trials and future research are made.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chewing Gum*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Psychotherapy / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology


  • Chewing Gum
  • Nicotine