Liquid embolisation material reduces the delivered radiation dose: a physical experiment

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008 Feb;150(2):161-4; discussion 164. doi: 10.1007/s00701-007-1482-9. Epub 2008 Jan 23.


Objective: To test a new hypothesis that the glue/contrast admixture used for embolisation reduces the dose delivered to AVMs using an experimental model.

Method: A model was created using a block of "solid water" (6 x 5 x 2 cm) with twelve wells of different depths. Different concentrations of the glue admixture (Enbucrilate + Lipiodol) were used. The model was irradiated using a 5MV beam with a clinical LINAC system and the dose was checked upstream and downstream. Dose was measured using Kodak XV film, a Vidar 16 bit film scanner and software for therapeutic film dosimetry measurements (RIT software).

Results: The radiation dose varied with the distance beyond the glue solid water interface. For distances of 0, 2 and 5 mm to the film, the mean reduction was 13.65% (SD = 2.94), 6.87% (SD = 1.95) and 1.75% (SD = 1.14), respectively. There was also correlation with the Lipiodol concentration in the mixture. The maximum reductions for 80, 50 and 20% Lipiodol concentrations were 16.1% (SD = 1.32), 14.85% (SD = 0.98) and 10% (SD = 1.21), respectively. There was no correlation between the glue depth and the dose delivered.

Conclusion: The hypothesis that the glue mixture used for embolisation reduces the radiation dose delivered was experimentally confirmed with this study.

MeSH terms

  • Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy*
  • Contrast Media / pharmacology*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic*
  • Enbucrilate / pharmacology*
  • Film Dosimetry
  • Humans
  • Iodized Oil / pharmacology*
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Radiation Dosage*
  • Radiosurgery


  • Contrast Media
  • Iodized Oil
  • Enbucrilate