This paper summarizes available information on patterns of physical activity, their determinants and consequences, and the results of various interventions designed to increase the physical activity of Aboriginal peoples in Canada and the United States. There is a paucity of national data on this issue for Aboriginal peoples. The most recent data, from the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey of 2002-2003, indicate that 21% of adults (27% of men, 15% of women) were engaging in at least 30 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity on 4 d/week or more. The present paper highlights the unique challenges this group faces, underlining the need to integrate collective knowledge regarding how much physical activity is required for Aboriginal Canadians, and how this activity should be accomplished, to promote and maintain health. Efforts are currently underway to tailor Canada's physical activity guide for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. Future research among Aboriginal groups should examine the minimal and optimal levels of physical activity required to achieve health benefits.