A review of work in the dopaminergic system reveals both progress and controversy. More than 100 papers on intracerebral grafting were published last year. Several groups have published the clinical outcome of fetal substantia nigra implants in Parkinsonian patients and studies suggest that sprouting of dopaminergic fibers in response to grafting procedures ameliorates the behavioral deficits of dopamine-depleted animals. Trophic factors for dopamine neurons have also been identified. In addition, genetically modified cells continue to be developed as an alternative method for delivering molecules to the brain. The speed with which neural grafting has become a therapeutic procedure in Parkinsonian patients continues to stimulate debate.