Epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern Vietnam, 2005

Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Nov;13(11):1733-41. doi: 10.3201/eid1311.070632.


During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Animals
  • Capsid Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Child
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Enterovirus A, Human / genetics
  • Enterovirus A, Human / isolation & purification
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / epidemiology*
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / transmission
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / virology*
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Vero Cells
  • Vietnam / epidemiology


  • Capsid Proteins
  • VP1 protein, Foot-and-mouth disease virus