Gamma interferon-inducible thiol reductase (GILT) is an enzyme involved in the initial steps of antigen processing and presentation. Recently we have shown that GILT is also expressed in mouse T cells, where it exerts an inhibitory role on T cell activation. In this study, we identified mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) as one of the key intermediaries affected by GILT expression in fibroblasts. Expression and activity of SOD2 is reduced in the absence of GILT because of reduced SOD2 protein stability. The forced increase in SOD2 expression in the absence of GILT restores fibroblast proliferation to wild-type levels. Thus, GILT appears to have a fundamental role in cellular proliferation mediated through its influence on SOD2 protein activity and expression.