Pharmacological properties of N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N'-4-[4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]butyl-guanidine methanesulfonate (552-02), a novel epithelial sodium channel blocker with potential clinical efficacy for cystic fibrosis lung disease

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Apr;325(1):77-88. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.130443. Epub 2008 Jan 24.


Amiloride improves mucociliary clearance (MC) by blocking airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) and expanding airway surface liquid (ASL). However, the low potency and rapid absorption of amiloride by airway epithelia translated into a short duration of efficacy as an aerosolized therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To improve ENaC blocker CF pharmacotherapy, a more potent and durable ENaC blocker tailored for aerosol delivery was synthesized. Parion compound N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N'-4-[4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]butyl-guanidine methanesulfonate (552-02) was tested for potency and reversibility of ENaC block, epithelial absorption and biotransformation, selectivity, durability of ASL expansion under isotonic and hypertonic conditions in canine and human CF bronchial epithelial cells, and drug dissociation on ENaC in Xenopus oocytes. Short-circuit current assessed compound potency and reversibility, patch-clamp recordings of ENaC current assessed drug off-rate (k(off)), a gravimetric method and confocal microscopy measured mucosal water retention and ASL height, and drug absorption and biotransformation were assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Amiloride and 552-02 were tested in vivo for MC activity in sheep immediately and 4 to 6 h after aerosol dosing. Compared with amiloride, compound 552-02 was 60 to 100-fold more potent, it was 2 to 5-fold less reversible, it was slower at crossing the epithelium, and it exhibited a 170-fold slower k(off) value. 552-02 exhibited greater ASL expansion over 8 h in vitro, and it was more effective than amiloride at increasing MC immediately and 4 to 6 h after dosing. When combining hypertonic saline and 552-02, a synergistic effect on ASL expansion was measured in canine or CF bronchial epithelia. In summary, the preclinical data support the clinical use of 552-02 +/- hypertonic saline for CF lung disease.

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Cystic Fibrosis / drug therapy*
  • Dogs
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers*
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases
  • Mesylates / pharmacokinetics*
  • Mesylates / pharmacology
  • Mesylates / therapeutic use
  • Respiratory Mucosa / metabolism
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / chemistry
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / pharmacokinetics*
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / pharmacology


  • Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers
  • Mesylates
  • Sodium Channel Blockers