Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency among black and white adult residents of the southern US.
Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels using baseline blood samples from 395 Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) participants. Participants were African-American and white adults aged 40-79 who enrolled in the study from 2002-2004. We defined hypovitaminosis D as serum 25(OH)D levels < or = 15 ng/ml.
Results: Hypovitaminosis D prevalence was 45% among blacks and 11% among whites. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was associated with modest increases in circulating 25(OH)D (0.5-0.7 ng/ml per 100 IU increment), but hypovitaminosis D was found for 32% of blacks with intake > or = 400 IU/day. Body mass index (BMI) was a strong predictor of risk for hypovitaminosis D among black women (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 1.7-25.1 for BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2) vs. 18-24.9 kg/m(2)). UVR exposure estimated by residential location was positively associated with 25(OH)D levels among all groups except white women.
Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D was present in a substantial proportion of the African-American population studied, even in the South and among those meeting recommended dietary guidelines. Vitamin D should continue to be a studied target for ameliorating racial cancer disparities in the US.