Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the industrialized world. A variety of precipitating events have been identified, but when it becomes a persistent problem, maladaptive patterns become established, thereby, perpetuating the sleep disturbance. Individuals with insomnia have impaired next-day functioning, which impacts their quality of life and places them at increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. Insomnia is commonly associated with chronic medical conditions, as well as an increased incidence of mental disorders. Despite considerable scientific advances in both the understanding and treatment, insomnia continues to be inadequately identified and treated, with < 15% of those with severe insomnia receiving appropriate treatment. The mainstay of treatment for insomnia is cognitive-behavioral therapy, along with judicious use of hypnotic agents.