Migration is an innate and fundamental cellular function that enables hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and endothelial progenitors (EPCs) to leave the bone marrow, relocate to distant tissue, and to return to the bone marrow. An increasing number of studies demonstrate the widening scope of the therapeutic potential of both HSCs and endothelial cells. Therapeutic success however not only relies upon their ability to repair damaged tissue, but is also fundamentally dependent on the migration to these areas. Extensive in vivo and in vitro research efforts have shown that the most significant effects seen on HSC migration are initiated by the chemokine SDF-1alpha. In this review we will elucidate the many cellular and systemic factors of HSC and EPC cell migration and their modi operandi.