p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction by 5-azacytosine nucleosides requires DNA damage

Oncogene. 2008 Jun 5;27(25):3615-23. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1211018. Epub 2008 Jan 28.


Decitabine (DAC) and 5-azacitidine have recently been approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. The pharmacodynamic effects of DAC and 5-azacitidine outside their known activity as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) require further investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DAC on the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a gene with a putative CpG island surrounding its promoter region. Promoter methylation analysis of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in leukemia cells revealed the absence of CpG methylation. However, DAC upregulated p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in a dose-dependent manner (ED(50)=103.34 nM) and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in leukemia cells. Sequential application of DAC followed by different histone deacetylase inhibitors induced expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) synergistically. Upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) paralleled DAC-induced apoptosis (ED(50)=153 nM). Low doses of DAC induced gamma-H2AX expression (ED(50)=16.5 nM) and upregulated p21(WAF1/CIP1) in congenic HCT 116 colon cancer cells in a DNMT-independent and p53-dependent fashion. Inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-alpha or the kinase activity of ATM by either the specific ATM inhibitor KU-5593 or caffeine abrogated p21(WAF1/CIP1) upregulation, indicating that DAC upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) was p53- and ATM-dependent in leukemia cells. In conclusion, DAC upregulates p21(WAF1/CIP1) in DNMT-independent manner via the DNA damage/ATM/p53 axis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Caffeine / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • CpG Islands
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism*
  • Cytosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cytosine / pharmacology
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA Repair
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia / drug therapy*
  • Leukemia / metabolism*
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Genetic
  • Transcriptional Activation


  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Caffeine
  • 5-azacytosine
  • Cytosine