Urinary incontinence in very young and mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised high-impact trampoline training: occurrence and risk factors

Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008 May;19(5):687-96. doi: 10.1007/s00192-007-0508-4. Epub 2008 Jan 26.


The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI) in mostly nulliparous women with a history of regular organised trampoline training as adolescents and to identify possible predictors. Female trampolinists in Sweden with licence for trampolining between 1995--1999 (n = 305), with a median age of 21 (range 18-44) years answered retrospectively a validated questionnaire. Competition with double somersaults had been performed by 85 women, the "competition group" (CG), while 220 women comprised the "recreational group" (RG). Of the trampolinists with UI during trampolining, 76% continued to leak. In CG, 57% and, in RG, 48% reported current UI. Strong predictors for UI were inability to interrupt micturition (p < 0.001) and constipation (p = 0.007). Training factors such as frequency/week x years of trampolining (p < 0.001) and years of trampolining after menarche increased the risk of UI (p < 0.001). The prevalence of current UI was higher in ex-trampolinists than in normals (p < 0.001), and hence the negative effects of trampolining cannot be ruled out.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Parity*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sports*
  • Stress, Physiological / complications*
  • Stress, Physiological / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Urinary Incontinence / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Incontinence / etiology
  • Urinary Incontinence / physiopathology
  • Urodynamics / physiology