High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to document tissue repair after prolotherapy: a report of 3 cases

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Feb;89(2):377-85. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2007.09.017.


High-resolution ultrasound imaging of musculoskeletal tissue is increasing in popularity because of patient tolerability, low cost, ability to visualize tissue in real-time motion, and superior resolution of highly organized tissue such as a tendon. Prolotherapy, defined as the injection of growth factors or growth factor production stimulants to grow normal cells or tissue, has been a controversial procedure for decades; it is currently gaining in popularity among physiatrists and other musculoskeletal physicians. This report describes imaging of tendons, ligaments, and medial meniscus disease (from trauma or degeneration). Although these tissues have been poorly responsive to nonsurgical treatment, it is proposed that tissue growth and repair after prolotherapy in these structures can be documented with ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Directions for future research application are discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use*
  • Ankle Injuries / diagnosis
  • Ankle Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Ankle Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnosis
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Athletic Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Glucose / therapeutic use*
  • Glycerol / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Injections
  • Knee Injuries / diagnosis
  • Knee Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Knee Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Lidocaine / therapeutic use*
  • Ligaments / injuries
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenol / therapeutic use
  • Tendon Injuries / diagnosis
  • Tendon Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Tendon Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Ultrasonography
  • Wound Healing / drug effects


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Phenol
  • Lidocaine
  • Glucose
  • Glycerol