Disorders of water and salt metabolism associated with pituitary disease

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):213-34, x. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2007.10.008.


Disorders of water and sodium homeostasis are very common problems encountered in clinical medicine. Disorders of water metabolism are divided into hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar states, with hyperosmolar disorders characterized by a deficit of body water in relation to body solute and hypoosmolar disorders characterized by an excess of body water in relation to total body solute. This article briefly reviews the physiology of hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar syndromes, then focuses on a discussion of the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of specific pre- and postoperative disorders of water metabolism in patients with pituitary lesions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arginine Vasopressin / physiology
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypernatremia / diagnosis
  • Hypernatremia / metabolism*
  • Hypernatremia / therapy
  • Hyponatremia / diagnosis
  • Hyponatremia / metabolism*
  • Hyponatremia / therapy
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Water / metabolism*
  • Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / diagnosis
  • Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / metabolism
  • Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / therapy


  • Water
  • Arginine Vasopressin