The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the arterial wall in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We studied 60 patients: 32 with stages 2-4 CKD [chronic renal failure (CRF)], 28 with stage 5 CKD [end-stage renal disease (ESRD)], and 43 controls (C). The evaluated parameters included intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries, bone mineral density (BMD), serum lipid levels, and parameters of the calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 with normal arteries, and group 2 with arterial changes. The highest serum fetuin A level was found in group 1 compared with groups 2 and C. A negative correlation between IMT and fetuin A level was found. In patients with ESRD, a positive correlation of IMT with phosphorus level and age and a negative correlation with cyclase-activating parathyroid hormone and cyclase inhibiting parathyroid hormone (CAP/CIP) ratio was observed. Multiple linear regression showed that lower fetuin-A and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels and higher lumbar spine BMD independently predicted higher IMT. Arterial wall changes in children with CKD were related to lower fetuin A and AP level and higher BMD. Low CAP/CIP and high phosphorus level may also be significant factors for arterial changes in patients with ESRD.