Use of voltage gradient partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis to estimate binding constants of ligands to receptors

J Capill Electrophor Microchip Technol. 2007;10(3-4):43-50.


Voltage gradient partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (VGPFACE) is used to determine binding constants between carbonic anhydrase B (CAB, E.C. and arylsulfonamides, and vancomycin (Van) from Streptomyces orientalis and teicoplanin (Teic) from Actinoplanes teicomyceticus and D-Ala-D-Ala terminus peptides. Two variations of VGPFACE are described herein. In the first technique, the capillary is partially filled with ligand at increasing concentrations followed by a sample containing receptor and two noninteracting standards and electrophoresed in buffer using a voltage gradient that increases from 0 to 25 kV over the duration of the experiment. Upon continued electrophoresis, zones of solution overlap, and equilibrium is established between the ligand and receptor, causing a shift in the migration time of the receptor with respect to the noninteracting standards. This change in migration time is utilized for estimating a binding constant (K(b)). In the second technique, voltage gradient partial-filling multiple-injection ACE (VGPFMIACE), a multiple-injection sequence is used whereby the capillary is partially filled with ligand at increasing concentrations, a noninteracting standard, three or four separate plugs of receptor each separated by small plugs of buffer, and a plug containing a second noninteracting standard; this is then electrophoresed in buffer with a similar voltage gradient. Upon continued electrophoresis, a similar equilibrium is established and a value for K(b) is obtained for the interaction. The VGPFACE technique expands the functionality and potential of ACE as an analytical tool to examine various receptor-ligand interactions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Binding, Competitive*
  • Carbonic Anhydrase I / chemistry
  • Chromatography, Affinity / methods
  • Electrophoresis, Capillary / instrumentation
  • Electrophoresis, Capillary / methods*
  • Glycopeptides / chemistry
  • Kinetics
  • Ligands*
  • Motion
  • Oligopeptides / chemistry
  • Protein Binding*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Static Electricity*


  • Glycopeptides
  • Ligands
  • Oligopeptides
  • Carbonic Anhydrase I