In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) currently represent more than 50% of those living with HIV and over 70% of HIV+ men (CDC 2007, http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/resources/factsheets/pdf/msm.pdf ). Male-to-male sexual contact has been identified as the predominant route of transmission among this sub-group, which underscores the need for research that targets risk factors associated with risky sex-related HIV acquisition. Along these lines, research has shown that one potentially important predictor variable for risky sex among MSM is alcohol use. The major aim of this paper is to review and integrate empirical evidence on the association of alcohol use and risky sex among MSM. A summary of the quantitative research is provided first, followed by a critique of the reviewed literature, a discussion of the consistency of the existing empirical evidence with predictions of current theories, and finally, recommendations for future research designed to evaluate alcohol-related sexual risk in MSM.