During the past few decades numerous studies have reported the atherogenic potential of saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and cholesterol, and beneficial effects of fiber, phytostanols/phytosterols, n-3 fatty acids, a Mediterranean diet, and other plant-based approaches. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of the evidence associated with key dietary factors and risk of cardiovascular disease-an umbrella term encompassing diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension-in conjunction with the work of the American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library review on diet and lipids, updated with new evidence from the past 2 years. The criteria used and results cited provide scientific rationale for food and nutrition professionals and other health professionals for counseling patients. Details of these searches are available within the American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library online (http://adaevidencelibrary.com). Potential mechanisms and needs for future research are summarized for each relevant nutrient, food, or food component.