This review summarizes the epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Although the incidence of disease has remained stable, the death rate has increased over 100% over the last two decades. Precursor lesions of complex hyperplasia with atypia are associated with an endometrial carcinoma in over 40% of cases. The percentage of obese women with endometrial cancer is increasing. The incidence of endometrial cancer in white women is twice the incidence in African-American women, but stage for stage, African-American women have a less favorable prognosis. Preoperative imaging cannot accurately assess lymph node involvement. Gross examination of depth of myometrial invasion does not have the sensitivity, specificity, and positive or negative predictive value to select women who can have lymphadenectomy safely omitted from the surgical procedure. In the absence of ideal noninvasive preoperative testing, surgical staging remains the most accurate method of determining the extent of disease. There has been an increase in surgical staging and a decrease in postoperative adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy over the past two decades. Women with a family history of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal colon cancer are at increased risk for endometrial cancer. Conservative treatment to allow for childbearing is possible in select situations. Women with endometrial cancer should be managed by physicians experienced in the treatment of this disease.