Among adults in the United States, sleep durations appear to have decreased in recent years. Inadequate sleep and sleep deprivation cause numerous neurobehavioral and physiological changes. A number of recent studies have reported associations between disrupted sleep/sleep deprivation and inflammatory responses, although the physiological mechanisms underlying these relationships remain unclear. Alterations in sleep due to lifestyle factors, the aging process, and disease states have all been associated with increases in a range of inflammatory markers. Several of these inflammatory processes have been associated with reduced health status (e.g., C-reactive protein and cardiovascular disease). Thus, maintaining adequate sleep duration and quality through good sleep habits and treatment of sleep disorders may reduce inflammatory processes associated with aging and increase the wellness phenotype.