Outcomes and costs of community living: semi-independent living and fully staffed group homes

Am J Ment Retard. 2008 Mar;113(2):87-101. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[87:OACOCL]2.0.CO;2.


In a matched-groups design, costs and quality of life outcomes for adults with intellectual disabilities with relatively low support needs were compared between those in fully staffed group homes (n = 35) and in semi-independent living (n = 35). Data were collected on participant characteristics, setting organization, various lifestyle outcomes, and costs. There were no differences in the majority of lifestyle outcome measures. Fully staffed participants had better outcomes in money management and some health indicators. Semi-independent living participants had better outcomes for choice and community activities undertaken without staff support. Costs for semi-independent living were less. On balance, semi-independent living could offer certain cost-effective lifestyle advantages provided that sufficient attention is given to health, living, and financial well-being.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living* / psychology
  • Adult
  • Community Mental Health Services / economics*
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Day Care, Medical / economics
  • England
  • Female
  • Group Homes / economics*
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / economics*
  • Intellectual Disability / psychology
  • Intellectual Disability / rehabilitation
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Matched-Pair Analysis
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Social Adjustment
  • Social Environment
  • Social Support
  • Wales