Objectives: CpG island hypermethylation causes gene silencing and could be decisive in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. We investigated its role at multiple gene sites during prostate carcinogenesis.
Methods: A quantitative, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the hypermethylation patterns at nine gene loci (Annexin2, APC, EDNRB, GSTP1, PTGS2, MDR1, RARbeta, Reprimo, and TIG1) in 80 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and 26 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Results: Hypermethylation was more frequent in PCa than in BPH tissues (EDNRB, 100% versus 88%; TIG1, 96% versus 12%; RARbeta, 95% versus 35%; GSTP1, 93% versus 15%; APC, 80% versus 50%; MDR1, 80% versus 31%; PTGS2, 68% versus 15%; Reprimo, 59% versus 19%; and Annexin2, 4% versus 0%). TIG1 and GSTP1 hypermethylation distinguished between PCa and BPH with a specificity of greater than 85% and sensitivity of greater than 93%. Hypermethylation at a single gene locus did not correlate with any clinicopathologic variables. In contrast, hypermethylation at two genes (eg, APC and TIG1, APC and GSTP1, APC and PTGS2, APC or MDR, GSTP1 or PTGS2) correlated significantly with the pathologic stage and/or Gleason score (P = 0.033 to 0.045). Hypermethylation at APC and Reprimo, as well as DNA hypermethylation at more than five genes, correlated significantly with the rate of prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy (P = 0.0078 and P = 0.0074, respectively).
Conclusions: Our results have confirmed that the hypermethylation patterns are helpful in the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. Increases in CpG island hypermethylation at multiple gene sites occur during PCa progression and indicate early biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.