Previous studies investigated the role of vitamin D intake and cancer risk. The kidney is a major organ for vitamin D metabolism, activity, and calcium homeostasis; therefore, it was hypothesized that dietary vitamin D intake and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may modify renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Three common VDR gene polymorphisms (BsmI, FokI, TaqI) were evaluated among 925 RCC cases and 1192 controls enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Overall associations with RCC risk were not observed; however, subgroup analyses revealed associations after stratification by median age of diagnosis and family history of cancer. Among subjects over 60 yr, reduced risks were observed among carriers of the f alleles in the FokI single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61 for Ff and OR = 0.74 for ff genotypes) compared to subjects with the FF genotype (P trend = 0.04; P interaction = 0.004). Subjects with the BB BsmI genotype and a positive family history of cancer had lower risk compared to subjects with the bb allele (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.33-1.1; P trend = 0.05). Genotype associations with these subgroups were not modified when dietary sources of vitamin D or calcium were considered. Additional studies of genetic variation in the VDR gene are warranted.