Background: There is a paucity of information regarding prostate cancer (PCa) risk factors among Hispanics, the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States.
Methods: This population-based case-control study included 176 Texas men of Mexican descent with PCa and 174 age- and ethnicity-matched controls. Demographic, lifetime occupational history, family history of cancer, lifestyle (e.g., smoking, alcohol, diet, and recreational physical activity) and anthropometric information were collected by personal interviews. Chemical exposure and physical activity were determined using job-exposure matrices for each reported job.
Results: Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate their independent effects. Compared to controls, cases were three times more likely to work in jobs with high agrichemical exposure (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.84-6.44), and 54% less likely to work in jobs with moderate/high occupational physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.77). In analyses stratified by stage, cases with organ-confined PCa were three times more likely to have high agrichemical exposure (OR = 3.39, 9%CI 1.68-6.84), and 56% less likely to have moderate/high levels of occupational physical activity (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.76). Increased risk of being diagnosed with advanced PCa was associated with obesity at time of diagnosis (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.20-5.20) and high levels of agrichemical exposure (OR = 4.65, 95% CI 1.97-10.97), but not with occupational physical activity.
Conclusions: This case-control study, the first conducted in a homogeneous Hispanic population, identified modifiable PCa risk factors, such as physical activity and agrichemical exposure, which may be useful in developing interventions for this understudied population.