Reduction in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) may promote weight gain and maintenance. Data on differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese subjects are conflicting. In this study, we sought for differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese women after consumption of 2 different isocaloric meals, one rich in protein and one rich in fat. Fifteen lean and 15 obese women were studied on 2 occasions, 1 week apart. In one visit, they consumed a protein-rich meal; in the other visit, a fat-rich meal. The 2 meals were isocaloric ( approximately 2026 kJ each), of equal volume, and given in random order. Resting energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation rates were measured and calculated in the fasting state and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meal consumption. Diet-induced thermogenesis was not significantly different between lean and obese subjects after consumption of either the protein-rich (P = .59) or the fat-rich meal (P = .68). Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly higher (by almost 3-fold) after consumption of the protein-rich meal in comparison with the fat-rich meal in both study groups. In addition, no significant differences in macronutrient oxidation rates were found between lean and obese women after the test meals. The results indicate that DIT is higher after protein intake than after fat intake in both lean and obese participants; however, DIT and macronutrient oxidation rate are not different between lean and obese subjects after consumption of either a protein-rich or a fat-rich meal. Over the long term, a low DIT after regular or frequent fat intake may contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity.