Objective: To review reported neurodevelopmental outcome data for patients with congenital heart disease, identify risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae and summarize potential neuromonitoring strategies that have been described.
Methods: A Medline search was performed utilizing combinations of the keywords congenital heart, cardiac, neurologic, neurodevelopment, neuromonitoring, quality of life, and outcome. All prospective and longitudinal follow-up studies of patients with congenital heart disease were included. Additionally, studies that examined neuroimaging, neuromonitoring, and clinical factors in relation to outcome were examined. Case reports and editorials were excluded. Additional references were retrieved from selected articles if the abstract described an evaluation of neurodevelopmental outcomes and/or predictors of outcome in patients with congenital heart disease.
Results: Overall, patients with CHD have increased rates of neurodevelopmental impairments, although intelligence appears to be in the normal range. Preoperative risk stratification, intraoperative techniques, postoperative care, and neuromonitoring strategies may all contribute to ultimate long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients with CHD postsurgical repair.
Conclusions: As advances in the medical and surgical management improves survival in patients with CHD, increasing knowledge about neurodevelopmental outcomes and the factors that affect them will provide for strategies to optimize long-term outcome in this high-risk population.