Determinants of changes in blood glucose response to short-term exercise training in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Nov;115(9):273-81. doi: 10.1042/CS20070422.


The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 4-week exercise training intervention on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, BMI (body mass index) and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify and establish criteria for patients who are more likely to improve their blood glucose from short-term exercise training. A randomized, controlled trial of exercise training, comprising two supervised and one non-supervised sessions of individualized cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise per week, was performed in 132 healthy patients with Type 2 diabetes (exercise training group, n=68), with the aim of accumulating a minimum of 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise for 4 weeks. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity [calculated by HOMA(IR) (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and QUICKI (quantitative insulin check index)], beta-cell function (calculated by HOMA(beta-Cell)), HbA(1c) (glycated haemoglobin) and VO(2max) (maximal oxygen consumption) were measured at baseline and at 4 weeks. The exercise training group had significant improvements in VO(2max), BMI and triacylglycerols (triglycerides). There were no significant changes in blood glucose, HOMA(IR), QUICKI or HOMA(beta-Cell). Decreases in blood glucose were significantly predicted by baseline blood glucose and HbA(1c), with these variables accounting for 15.9% of the change in blood glucose (P<0.001). ROC (receiver operator characteristic) curve analysis revealed that patients with a blood glucose >8.85 mmol/l (sensitivity=73%, specificity=78%) and HbA(1c) >7.15% (sensitivity=79%, specificity=60%) were more likely to achieve a clinically significant decrease in blood glucose. In conclusion, in apparently healthy patients with Type 2 diabetes, a 4-week exercise intervention improved cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI and triacylglycerols. Elevated blood glucose and HbA(1c) predicted improvements in blood glucose.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / rehabilitation*
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Patient Selection
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids